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Overview Descriptive Statistics Inferential Statistics Graphical Summary Overview The results of your statistical analyses help you to understand the outcome of your study, e. Statistics are tools of science, not an end unto themselves.
Statistics should be used to substantiate your findings and help you to say objectively when you have significant results.
Therefore, when reporting the statistical outcomes relevant to your study, subordinate them to the actual biological results. Always report the mean average value along with a measure of variablility standard deviation s or standard error of the mean.
Two common ways to express the mean and variability are shown below: If the summary statistics are presented in graphical form a Figureyou can simply report the result in the text without verbalizing the summary values: Frequency data should be summarized in the text with appropriate measures such as percents, proportions, or ratios.
AVOID writing writing a descriptive statistics reporting sentences which simply say what test you used to analyze a result followed by another giving the result.
This wastes precious words economy!! Summarizing Statistical Test Outcomes in Figures If the results shown in a figure have been tested with an inferential test, it is appropriate to summarize the outcome of the test in the graph so that your reader can quickly grasp the significance of the findings.
It is imperative that you include information in your Materials and Methods, or in the figure legend, to explain how to interpret whatever system of coding you use. Several common methods for summarizing statistical outcomes are shown below. Comparing groups t-tests, ANOVA, etc Comparison of the means of 2 or more groups is usually depicted in a bar graph of the means and associated error bars.
For two groups, the larger mean may have asterisks centered over the error bar to indicate the relative level of the p-value.
In all cases, the p-value should be reported as well in the figure legend The asterisk may also be used with tabular results as shown below. Note how the author has used a footnote to define the p-values that correspond to the number of asterisks.
Courtesy of Shelley Ball For three or more groups there are two systems typically used: The system you use depends on how complicated it is to summarize the result. The first example below shows a comparison of three means.
The line spanning two adjacent bars indicates that they are not significantly different based on a multiple comparisons testand because the line does not include the pH 2 mean, it indicates that the pH 2 mean is significantly different from both the pH 5.
Note that information about how to interpret the coding system line or letters is included in the figure legend. When lines cannot easily be drawn to summarize the result, the most common alternative is to use capital letters placed over the error bars.
Letters shared in common between or among the groups would indicate no significant difference.
Summarizing Correlation and Regression Analyses For relationship data X,Y plots on which a correlation or regression analysis has been performed, it is customary to report the salient test statistics e.
If a regression is done, the best-fit line should be plotted and the equation of the line also provided in the body of the graph.Overview. The results of your statistical analyses help you to understand the outcome of your study, e.g., whether or not some variable has an effect, whether variables are related, whether differences among groups of observations are the same or different, etc.
Statistics are tools of science, not an end unto themselves. ARABIC [back to top]. ARA Beginning Arabic I 4 cr. Introduces understanding, speaking, reading, and writing skills, and emphasizes basic Arabic sentence structure.
How to Prepare a Manuscript for International Journals — Part 2. In this monthly series, Dr. Angel Borja draws on his extensive background as an author, reviewer and editor to give advice on preparing the manuscript (author's view), the evaluation process (reviewer's view) and what there is to hate or love in a paper (editor's view).
Jan 04, · Tutorial for reporting statistics in an APA style manuscript, including using special scripts/symbols and the Equation Editor function in Word for Windo.
Before beginning your paper, you need to decide how you plan to design the study.. The research design refers to the overall strategy that you choose to integrate the different components of the study in a coherent and logical way, thereby, ensuring you will effectively address the research problem; it constitutes the blueprint for the collection, measurement, and analysis of data.
For relationship data (X,Y plots) on which a correlation or regression analysis has been performed, it is customary to report the salient test statistics (e.g., r, r-square) and a p-value in the body of the graph in relatively small font so as to be unobtrusive.