It is necessary to understand the past demographic and socioeconomic trends to better estimate the future size and characteristics of the older population as well as to forecast their demand for services and the extent to which those demands can be met. Analysis of the demographic and socioeconomic trends of the elderly population will also help identify data needed to make informed policy decisions related to the health of the future elderly population.
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Public Health and Aging: These factors, combined with elevated fertility in many countries during the 2 decades after World War II i.
Worldwide, the average life span is expected to extend another 10 years by 1. The growing number of older adults increases demands on the public health system and on medical and social services. Chronic diseases, which affect older adults disproportionately, contribute to disability, diminish quality of life, and increased health- and long-term--care costs.
Increased life expectancy reflects, in part, the success of public health interventions 2but public health programs must now respond to the challenges created by this achievement, including the growing burden of chronic illnesses, injuries, and disabilities and increasing concerns about future caregiving and health-care costs.
This report presents data from the U. The sex distribution of older U.
However, migration patterns could influence these projections. Fertility rates declined in developing countries during the preceding 30 years and in developed countries throughout the 20th century 2.
Life expectancy at birth in developed countries now ranges from 76 to 80 years 2. Life expectancy also has increased in developing countries sincealthough the amount of increase varied. A higher life expectancy at birth for females compared with males is almost universal.
The average sex differential in was approximately 7 years in Europe and North America but less in developing countries 2.
Demographic Transition The world has experienced a gradual demographic transition from patterns of high fertility and high mortality rates to low fertility and delayed mortality 2. The transition begins with declining infant and childhood mortality, in part because of effective public health measures 2.
Lower childhood mortality contributes initially to a longer life expectancy and a younger population. Declines in fertility rates generally follow, and improvements in adult health lead to an older population. As a result of demographic transitions, the shape of the global age distribution is changing.
Bythe age distribution in developed countries represented similar proportions of younger and older persons Figure 2. For developing countries, age distribution is projected to have similar proportions by 2. Epidemiologic Transition The world also has experienced an epidemiologic transition in the leading causes of death, from infectious disease and acute illness to chronic disease and degenerative illness.Most research suggests that only a small fraction of the elderly population can afford good quality policies and that the non-elderly population is unwilling to voluntarily purchase insurance in large numbers.
16, Conclusion. The ageing of the population in the US will place substantial additional economic burden on public programmes. The decline in late-life disability prevalence in the United States was one of the most important developments in the well-being of older Americans in the s and s, but there is no guarantee that it will continue into the future.
growth of the older population in the United States will present challenges to policy makers and programs, such as Social Security and Medicare.
It will also affect families, businesses, and health care providers. U.S. Census Bureau, Population Estimates and National Projections. This dissertation consists of three independent essays on long-term care of the elderly in the United States. Long-term care encompasses a wide array of increasingly important and rapidly changing issues.
“While global aging represents a triumph of medical, social and economic advances,” the authors write, “it also presents tremendous challenges that affect economic growth, formal and informal social support systems and the ability of states and communities to provide resources for older citizens.
Disclosing Prescription-Drug Prices in Advertisements — Legal and Public Health Issues Healthy Elderly and the United States, aspirin use had no effect on the.